The Global Geophysical Fluids Center (GGFC) was established by the International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) on IERS's 10th anniversary (January 1, 1998) in an effort to expand IERS's services to the scientific community. In 2009, the IERS directing board voted to restructure the GGFC to better serve the community. Three operational special Bureaus (SB) have been selected, each responsible for research and data service activities pertaining to mass transports in the atmosphere, oceans, and hydrological systems.
A fourth SB, related to mass changes in combined systems, e.g. atmosphere and oceans has also been created. The new Non-Operational components contains models of the core, mantle, and tides that do not change regularly.
New products for the GGFC can be proposed at any time. This requires the submission of 1) a short proposal and 2) a letter of commitment from the proposer's organizational head to the GGFC Chair. The proposal should include: 1) a description of the product, 2) the availability of the data for generating the product, 3) the expected reliability of the data in terms of expected latency and precision or accuracy, and 4) the expected delay in making the product operational. The GGFC Chair will forward the proposal to the appropriate Operational Bureau and the IERS Directing Board for agreement. Upon the agreement of the IERS DB, the GGFC Chair and the appropriate Special Bureau Chair the product becomes a provisional operational product for a period of two years. At the end of the two-year period, the product will be evaluated by the IERS DB, the GGFC Chair and the appropriate Special Bureau Chair. If the review is positive, the provisional operational product becomes an operational product and the institution becomes an official IERS product center.